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The Treaty of Poncho Verde, The Poncho Verde Convention or The Peace of Poncho Verde is the name given to an agreement which brought the Farroupilha Revolution and Rio Grandense Republic to an end, turning the pending territory back to The Brazilian Empire, commanded by D. Pedro II. March 1 is accepted as the date when the agreement was signed and the peace was announced.

The Farroupilha Revolution, according to Dilerman Zanchet, “arose right after the attacks on Porto Alegre, commanded by Bento Gonçalves da Silva, main farroupilha leader, with about 200 hundred men. It was considered the biggest civil revolution in Brazil, with combats that killed more than 3 thousand men.

The main causes of the revolution were the high taxes charged at the place where the sales happened (usually other States) charged for animals, leather, jerked meat and wheat produces in the ranches of Rio Grande. The manufacturer of jerked beef and ranchers also complained about other taxes: the imported salt and land property.

In November of 1844 (nine years after the Revolution began) they were all in a truce. The black lancers, who were camped in a small hill in Porongos and led by David Canabarro, were attacked by forces commanded by Francisco Pedro de Abreu. The black lancers bodies, about 100 men tried to resist attack but they were all almost killed. More than 300 republicans were also arrested, among white, black and 35 officers. This was the last huge combat registered in the revolution.”1

Ponche Verde or Poncho Verde is a region named like this because of its green fields which are great for cattle. Nowadays the place located in a city called Dom Pedrito, in Rio Grande do Sul state.

The final document:

The Treaty of Poncho Verde, The Poncho Verde Convention or The Peace of Poncho Verde
In Poncho Verde, in the end of February, 1845, the document terms were examined by the republicans, which had already been signed by Lord Caxias and they were named Convention of peace between Brazil and the republicans. General David Canabarro, who was also a republican army commandant and having the power to represent the Republic presidency, accepted the conditions. Farrapos and emperors met at Carolina´s Imperial Camping, in Ponche Verde, to decree the Province pacification. There were 12 pacification clauses, which were read in Poncho Verde by Antonio Vicente de Fontoura on February 25:

Article 1 - It will be named the Province President the one who is recommended by the republicans.

Article 2 - Total forgetfulness of all the actions practiced by the republicans during the battle, and they can´t allow anyone to bring a suit against them in any case, not even for a private interests claim.

Article 3 - Let all the prisoners free, and at the expenses of the Imperial Government, transport them to their families, including the ones who are Army soldiers.

Article 4 - Is guaranteed to the Public Debt, according to the picture that it presents, in a preventive deadline.

Article 5 - The civil actions of the republicans’ authorities will be revalidated, every time the laws that are in force are observed from them.

rticle 6 - It will be revalidated the Apostolic Vicar actions.

Article 7 - It´s guaranteed by the Imperial Government the freedom of the slaves who served in the republicans lines.

Article 8 - The Republican Officials won´t be embarrassed in any military service. And when they want to serve spontaneously, they will be admitted into their position.

Article 9 - The republican soldiers are excused from the recruitment.

Article 10 - Only Generals stop being admitted into their position, however they will have the immunity given to the Officials.

Article 11 - The property rights are guaranteed in all its plenitude.

Article 12 - Deserters are forgiven by the Imperial Army.

(ass) Lord Caxias (citation from Brazilian Military Magazine, april- june, 1978, vol. CXIII, year LXIV, p. 116-117. Apud Henrique Wiederspahn, cit, p. 11- 12).

After Poncho Verde peace was signed, David Canabarro wrote a proclamation which announced the end of Farrapos War. The text is from February 28, 1845:

Citizens! Authorized competently by civil magistrates whom we used to obey and in my capacity as Commander- in- chief, we agreed with the will of all the Officials of my commanding strength, I declare that the Civil War in which has devastated this country for more than nine years is over!

Citizens! When being released from the responsibility which was trusted in me, the power which directed the revolution, I assure you can go back to your families. Your own security and your property are guaranteed by the monarch sacred words and the consideration of your virtues is trusted in his magnanimous heart. Unity, fraternity, respect for the laws and eternal gratitude to the Province President, the most eminent and most excellent Lord Caxias, for his strength in the Province pacification

The Treaty is a subject which causes a lot of discussion. But its invalidity and the possible inexistence didn’t guarantee the physical nor political continuity of the Rio- Grandense Republic, because its territory was completely reintegrated into the Empire, and subsequently into the Brazilian republic.
However, the Rio- Grandense republic is symbolically perennial on the Rio Grande do Sul state´s flag and coat of arms, in the same way as other Brazilian states (such as Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Bahia, São Paulo and Paraiba) which maintained in its civic symbols signs of emancipated movements. Porto Alegre city, for instance, show in its coat of arms the Mui Leal and Valerosa title, which was given by D. Pedro II for resisting the siege imposed by Farroupilhas republicans. In the state countryside were developed subsequently some cities which eponyms evoke some of the protagonists of that time: Caxias do Sul, Bento Gonçalves, Garibaldi, Farroupilha.

(1) ZANCHET, Dilerman. O Tratado de Ponco Verde. In: Revista Somando. Fundação Cultural Planalto de Passo Fundo.

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